Texturing is an integral stage of 3D modeling and rendering of a three-dimensional object. The creation of a texture and its imposition on a 3D model determine its quality, realism and accuracy.
Application of professional computer programs, texturing 3d max , for working with graphics provide unlimited possibilities for working with 3D objects, regardless of the complexity of the object’s configuration, type of materials, and others.
Texture – This is an image (raster format) applied to the polygonal model by overlaying, in order to give the model texture, relief and the desired color.
Texturing – an important stage in the process of creating and visualizing a 3D model of a product, which allows you to give the surface of a volumetric object certain parameters and properties, to give it maximum realism and resemblance to a real object.
The texturing quality of an object is determined by units such as texil. Texil is a collection of pixels per 1 texture unit. The image format and resolution of the texture used directly determine the quality of the final results.
Texture Creation – Basic Techniques
There are the following main methods of creating textures :
- rendering in a graphic 2d editor, for example, Photoshop;
- creating a texture in a 3D painting package such as Mudbox, ZBrush, Mari or 3D-Coat;
- construction based on procedural maps;
- complex application of procedural techniques of various kinds, 2d and 3d format.
For example, if you need to create a brick wall texture, then you need to perform the following sequence of actions:
- creation of a plane, search and refinement of the texture of a brick wall. Creation of a seamless texture of a brick wall in 2D programs;
- a gloss map is created to give the texture of the brick wall a light, realistic sheen;
- surface roughness is obtained by creating a roughness map;
- the reflectivity of a brick wall is created using a reflection map.
After going through the sequence of these stages, the modeled plane will turn into a realistic natural brick wall.
There are the following main types of texturing
- relief texturing;
- MIP texturing.
Relief texturing – technology for working with 3D graphics, which allows you to create the surface of the modeled object in a rich and realistic design.
Types of bump mapping
- Bump mapping – a technology that allows you to give the surface of the modeled object a relief effect and carefully detail it. This effect is created by virtually displacing pixels using a single band heightmap and a light source. As a result, participants with varying degrees of illumination can be obtained. Bump mapping is used to create difficult bumpy surfaces, protrusions and depressions.
- Normal mapping – a method for changing the normal of a pixel based on a color normal map. In this case, the changes are saved in texels. This method is the most accurate due to the use of 3 texture channels in the normal map.
- Parallax occlusion mapping – a local ray tracing method used to determine the heights and visibility of a texel. This method creates stronger relief depths. However, it does not allow for detailed detailing of objects.
MIP texturing – a method in which, when applying textures, copies of the same illustration of the texture are applied, with varying degrees of rendering of details.
Texturing is used for the following purposes :
- demonstration of the object material;
- visual representation of the physical properties of a 3D object;
- modeling lighting and reflection effects to make 3D objects realistic;
- creation of small details on the surface of the modeled object;
- rendering volumes.
The most common texturing errors are :
- incorrect scaling of the texture causes image distortion on the surface of the modeled object;
- selection of low-quality low-resolution textures;
- texturing complex objects using the UVW map tool, instead of UNWRAP UVW, which causes incorrect parameter settings;
- incorrect adjustment of texture transparency, reflection and refraction parameters;
- multiple duplication of the texture image on one surface reduces its realism.
+38 (044) 338 88 02