Technologies of three-dimensional printing, 3D modeling and 3D mapping technologies are in massive demand today, mainly due to their availability and simplicity. Creating a 3D model is a painstaking and difficult process based on the use of professional software for working with 3D graphics.
the main objective 3D modeling – creation of an accurate and most realistic model. How realistic the 3D model is depends on the choice of materials from which the texture of the object will be created.
Texture – a raster image superimposed on the model (high-poly or low-poly).
Creates this image in graphics programs, with the help of which the texture can be given a certain shape, texture, relief and color.
Mapping (or texturing) – one of the most important stages of work when building a 3d model. At this stage, the surfaces of the object model are given the necessary properties in order to make it more realistic.
If, for example, it is necessary to create a plane and give it the properties of asphalt. :
- change color the resulting plane to the color of the asphalt surface;
- to give the asphalt a natural shine, a special gloss map;
- roughness the surface is formed by the irregularity map;
- based on the reflection map is created reflectivity asphalt surface.
After completing each of the steps above, you will have a simulated plane that looks like natural asphalt.
The quality of mapping or texturing is determined by a special graphic unit – texils.
Texel Is a certain number of pixels per 1 texture unit. The final 3D graphics are determined by factors such as the format and resolution of the texture image.
Where is mapping used?
Mapping , or in other words, texture mapping process – a way to give the model of an object and its surface the desired properties, by imposing a texture (graphic image) on a given surface.
- Texturing is primarily intended for demonstration of material, from which the volumetric object is created.
- 3D Mapping allows you to clearly demonstrate the physical properties of an object whose model was created.
- Mapping allows you to create a reflection model and add other lighting effects, for giving the object realism.
- Give a chance create small object on the surface of the 3D model – folds of clothes, small stones, scars and wrinkles on the face, etc. The creation of such objects using polygons is a long and very costly process.
- 3D mapping technologies also used for rendering volumes.
Methods for creating textures :
- building a texture in a 2d editor – Photoshop, Gimp, etc .;
- in 3d drawing editors (Mari, 3D-Coat, ZBrush, Mudbox, etc.);
- creation of textures based on procedural maps;
- a combination of various techniques to create textures in 2d and 3d formats.
There are 2 main types of texture mapping :
1. Relief texturing;
Relief texturing – a type of computer graphics that allows you to give the surface of the 3D model of the object saturation and realism.
Varieties of bump mapping :
- Bump mapping – this technology allows you to create the effect of a relief surface with detailing of all design objects. This effect is created using a single band heightmap in black and white and a light source. In this case, there is a virtual displacement of the pixels. This is how participants get different in illumination, lighter and darker. Bump mapping is used when creating bumps or deep depressions.
- Normal mapping – a method that changes the normal of a pixel based on a color normal map, where such deviations will be saved as texels. In this case, the normal map uses three texture channels, which gives it a high degree of realism and accuracy.
- Parallax occlusion mapping – a local ray tracing technique used to determine the heights and visibility of a texel. This method is indispensable in the case when it is necessary to create a greater depth of the relief, but does not provide the possibility of detailing objects and faces.
MIP texturing – a method of applying textures (3d mapping), in which multiple copies of one texture image are applied, but with different levels of detail.