At the dawn of the emergence of the automotive industry, there were no rules and restrictions regarding the safety of passengers and others. … And many parts for cars were created by craftsmen by hand. Number of cars which were produced, was much less than in our time. Main material for the manufacture of the car was metal … All these factors greatly influenced the variety of design of cars of the past and their extraordinary appearance.
Until the mid 20s of the twentieth century in car design the shapes of horse-drawn carriages were guessed … Cars that were produced from mid 20s to mid 30s, were performed in the Art Deco style. Automotive design echoed the basic associations of the car – dynamics, power and speed.
Duesenberg Model J 1933
Art Deco was replaced by Streamline Moderne. It was characterized by streamlined shapes superimposed on the impressive size of the car.
1939 Lincoln Zephyr fastback
In the 1950s, cars were characterized by metaphorical body shapes. They reminded of the beginning of the space age of mankind. Design elements of planes and rockets were guessed in the lines of the car.
Ford thunderbird 1965
In the mid-70s, luxury and neoclassical style came into fashion. Typical of this style is the 1973 American-made Marquis B中 four-door sedan.
1973 Marquis B 4-door sedan
By the end of the twentieth century, the design of the engine was changed, which entailed a change in the appearance of the machine. Eighties can be considered a revolution in the appearance of cars. Square shapes have been replaced by more rounded ones. The laws of aerodynamics come to the fore when creating a design. Streamlining made it possible to significantly reduce gasoline consumption, which was especially important (at the end of the seventies, the world was covered by the second wave of the gasoline crisis).
1982 Ford Sierra and Audi 100 C3
Typical representatives of the new style are the 1982 Ford Sierra and the Audi 100 C3. In the 90s, the rounded shapes obtained in the 80s remained the basis of the car’s design, which became even thinner and smoother. This result was achieved thanks to the use of computer design technologies, which became widespread during this period.
In 1997, the Ford Ka came out. For the first time in its design, the geometric style “New Face” was used. This car was the pioneer of a new – “geometric” or “computer” body shape. By the end of the 90s, the maximum roundness (biodesign style) was replaced by a combination of rounded and faceted elements.
Ford Ka 1997
Thanks to the globalization of the automotive industry the flaps, massive radiator grilles, pontoon puffy forms have receded into the background. Rationalism came into force, which stimulated the search for new, more convenient forms. Automotive design today is characterized by a passion for safety, environmental concerns, and the influence of computer technology.
Today, after all the evolutions and safety laws, the design of the car leaves little room for change. There are certain proprietary features that are associated with the national origin of brands. French style is light, a little frivolous , German is discreet and proportional; Korean is vibrant with lively curved lines. Postclassics like Mini or Fiat 500 stand apart.
Machine Design Creation: Ratio of Reasonable to Possible
In exterior automotive design, proportions are paramount. The wrong approach is when the front or back of the car is too long. The wheels should be proportional to the overall size and stand out visually, as the entire volume rests on them. This works not only from a technical point of view, but also from a psychological one. The more impressive the support, the more confidence in it.
The difficulty in creating an industrial car design for mass production is that the models must correspond to the given dimensions, the dimensions of the engine, the wheels, the volume of free space in the passenger compartment. There are many restrictions, any big change can lead to the transition of the car to a different price segment. Another significant aspect that stands in the way of innovation is legislative restrictions. The height of the roof, the dimensions of the headlights and mirrors are parameters that are determined by laws and safety requirements. Designers cannot change them.
Chris Labrooy – Tales Of Auto Elasticity
If we talk about compact mass cars, then when creating and producing a product, the main thing is the greatest savings while getting the maximum profit. First of all, this concerns the stringent requirements for the engine and aerodynamics, and this factor, in turn, affects the design. A small engine assumes a low power of such a car, due to which the wheels are reduced. The car itself is getting smaller too.
While working, designers are constantly looking for new ways to improve the car. There is an initial vision for the best solution concept. It can be transformed while working on the machine. An important factor is the requirement to provide as much space in the cabin as possible with a small car size. Car interior design is more difficult than exterior design. It is difficult to make the design of the machine convenient and beautiful because of the solution of many issues related to ergonomics and practicality.
Industrial vehicle design: a look into the future
1. Modular design of cars. People dreamed about this technology at the beginning of the twentieth century. Its meaning is that a car body can be “put on” on a universal platform-chassis. Thus, by purchasing one platform, you can acquire several cars of different formats (sports car and crossover, for example). In 2002 year General motors presented the concept of such a universal platform for a car, and continue to work in this direction (concepts Hi Wire and AUTOnomy) … It is expected that in the not too distant future this technology will become a reality and will be available to a person with an average income.
2. New generation paint and enamel. Nissan has been experimenting with anti-vandal paint for a long time, Murano model itself heals small scratches on the case. In the future, most car brands will adopt this technology.
3. Projecting data onto the windshield. The technology that was developed for aviation is also relevant for cars. By 2020, production vehicles are expected to be equipped with full-color head-to-top systems. Ideally, it will be possible to project on the glass not only data about the internal parameters of the car, but also navigation information about the surrounding objects. Data from night vision devices will also be displayed on the windshield. All this will allow you to completely change the design of the car interior and the design of the car dashboard. Harman Interactive is currently developing this area. , Tesla , Toyota and BMW.
4. Hydrophobic windows. Another advancement for the future should be hydrophobic windows that repel water and prevent fogging. One of the first cars to use this technology is 2014 Kia Cadenza. This feature will become very common in the future.
5. A car without a driver. Google, Uber, Tesla, Apple, General Motors, Volkswagen, Audi, BMW, Volvo, Nissan – all of them are engaged in the creation of cars that can move without a driver. Currently, there are two areas of development: for use as a taxi and for standard use. The former are characterized by small dimensions and a more futuristic design. The latter are not much different from other modern cars.
The car that was presented Google in 2014, was not equipped with a steering wheel and pedals, it designed for 2 passengers. The design of the car differs from ordinary cars in shape and size. Among the advantages of such transport, the creators name an increase in road capacity by narrowing the width of the road lanes.
Google drone cars (double and standard)
6. The era of plastic and carbon. Plastic is becoming more popular and will be used not only in car interior design. Body panels, chassis power elements, tires, suspension springs – all these elements will be made of plastic. For example, in The Ford GT has a carbon fiber frame and carbon fiber body panels. Bridgestone Corporation has developed a new design for automobile tires (similar developments are also available at the giant Michelin). They are made of plastic and do not need air. These tires are puncture-resistant, weigh less, cost less and can last longer than regular tires.
7. New types of fuel. It was already mentioned above that the internal structure of the car affects its appearance. The lighter the design of the car, the less gasoline it absorbs. Early 2016 Peugeot and Citroen presented an innovative development – a prototype of a car with a compressed air engine Air Hybrid. The machine looks neat and is extremely economical.
Another car of the future is the concept Toyota FCV Plus, presented at the end of 2015 at the Tokyo Motor Show. The appearance of the car is very modern, as is the idea itself – a car powered by a hydrogen engine is able not only to provide itself with energy, but also to generate additional energy (with the ability to share it). The design of car rims is distinguished by an original approach (a circle inscribed in a triangle) and the presence of an electric motor inside each of the wheels.
The industrial design of the cars of the future: an overview of the best solutions
BMW and the self-driving car of the future. Vision Next 100 – the concept that was presented at the beginning of 2016. He must demonstrate how the car will change in the next hundred years. In addition to its modern appearance, its feature is the ability to work simultaneously in two modes – unmanned and standard. The design of the car, as conceived by the creators, will be able to transform, adjusting to the driver. This is due to the presence of 800 movable triangular body elements on the outside and inside the machine. Thus, the car will be able to increase and decrease the width of the wheel arch.
The Cadillac WTF Concept is a nuclear powered car. This car of the future is powered by thorium. According to the creators, it is one of the safest radioactive elements. 8 grams of such a substance is enough for this car to work the entire life of the owner (service life – 100 years). The futuristic design of the car resembles a spaceship rather than just a means of transportation and echoes the works of Salvador Dali.
The body shape is similar to a serpentine tongue or an arrow that bifurcates in the middle. The concept has 24 wheels, 6 on each of the 4 sides. Thanks to special approaches, the design has turned out to be very flexible, using the movable elements of the body, the car will be able to transform, changing its shape. The reactor is located at the back of the machine. Vpolls about the safety of such a car remain unanswered. What will happen in an accident, how to conduct crash tests? However, it is possible that this idea may become a reality in 50 years.
In January 2016, the Lo Res concept car was presented, which was created in the Netherlands. Its peculiarity is in its appearance, which is very little like what is commonly called a car. The design of the car is abstract structure and clean forms.
Students from the University of Einhoven in the Netherlands have developed a 1-meter prototype of a car that runs on formic acid (which contains hydrogen). Students promise to show the finished full-size prototype in 2017. It is worth noting that Audi, Toyota, and Honda have all presented their hydrogen-powered vehicles, but this project will be cheaper to implement.
Automotive design features: attention to detail
1. Audi TT digital air vents. In 2016, car ventilation ducts were equipped with digital technologies. These are small LCD screens and regulators that can be used to regulate the temperature and air flow in the car.
2. Concept Lexus LF-SA is made in origami style. Attention is drawn to the radiator grill, which looks like an attacking flock of piranhas.
3. The Ford GT diffuser at the rear looks like a small nuclear reactor. The taillights are reminiscent of rocket engine nozzles that work at full power.
4. The creators of Lincoln Continental 2016 also paid attention to the lanterns, which, in combination with chrome, look incredibly bright. The example of this car shows that you can focus on the back of the car, and it will still look cool.
5. The Nissan Sway concept is somewhat similar to the Lexus LF-SA. It can be compared to a hawk that attacks its prey. The design feature of the car is that Shiro Nakamura made the car look like a big car, while the Sway is a small car. This effect is achieved due to the unusual side waves on the body, which create a deceptive impression of the large dimensions of the car.
6. In the design of Nissan Maxima 2016, the V-shaped roof allows to achieve the effect of “design movement” when the car appears to be moving even though it is stationary. This technique is often used in sports cars.
7. The interior design of the Volvo XC90 features many refined details. For example, the glass gear knob, which was created for Volvo by the glass company Orrefors (one of the leaders in the global glass industry).
8. Now it is difficult to imagine a car interior without an information screen. However, not all of them fit well into the interior design of the car. Fiat 500X 2016 touch screen stylized as an old TV with two handles at the bottom. This retro design looks out of the box and very stylish.
9. The interior of the 2015 Jeep Renegade was done by Klaus Busse. Thanks to him, the design of car seats, rear-view mirrors, interior panels, rugs, center consoles and even the trunk is decorated with thematic drawings. As conceived by the master, this allows you to draw attention to those places in the car that you usually do not look at.
10. Mazda MX-5 Miata has a classic design and adheres to the style of the brand. The originality of this model is in the roundness and inflated wings of the car. They are complemented by classic optics and in the end it turned out not just a car, but an object of art.
11. BMW i8 2014 can be called a masterpiece of car design. This sports car is made in a futuristic style. It has dynamic shapes and clean lines. The highlight of the car is LED headlights with laser technology in red and blue colors. Due to the combination with metal, it is impossible to take your eyes off them.
12. The Nissan Gripz concept has been named Emotional Geometry. The appearance is characterized by extraordinary lines, colors and a combination of various structures. They fit perfectly into the overall design idea and beautifully wrap around the rear optics of the car.
13 Ferrari 488 Supercar Wins 2016 Best Design Award according to the prestigious Red Dot Design Awards. The design of the car is reminiscent of the 458 Italia and has partial references to the 308 GTB. Thanks to a more advanced aerodynamic system (compared to the 458 Italia), the car body develops 50% more downforce and creates less air resistance.
Retro notes are recognized in the design of the car. The expressive side air intakes make it easy to draw parallels with the 308 GTB from the 70s and 80s. Other striking elements of the model are a large air intake, a wide front spoiler, a diffuser with active rear flaps.
The interior of the car practically does not differ from previous models, but the designers have equipped it with new triangular air vents for climate control, new seats and an updated interface for the infotainment system.
To create a car design, contact industrial design studio KLONA. Thanks to our experience, professionalism and non-standard approaches, the design of your car will be unique!
Car design and its impact on sales: 10 approaches
Car design can be roughly divided into 2 big aspects. The first is the design of showcars. When creating them, designers have a lot of space for creativity, and viewers are usually impressed by non-standard approaches and revolutionary ideas. For mass production, simpler and more classic options are usually chosen. People love looking at posh futuristic cars at car dealerships, but they’re not always willing to buy them. Clients are usually guided by practicality and intuitively prefer the already familiar forms. There are design trends that are key and that designers regularly return to.
1. Tumblehome. This term comes from marine engineering and means the tapering of the hull from the top to the bottom. Most car models now adhere to this style. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this technique had not yet migrated from shipbuilding to the automotive industry. Therefore, the cars looked completely different from what they are now.
An example of non-compliance with the Tumblehome principle
2. Realistic design. Despite advances in new technology and impressively beautiful cars with a futuristic design, it is not suitable for mass production cars. Buyers are still wary of modern cars and too modern designs, preferring more familiar car looks.
3. Balance of realism. When creating a car for mass production, designers try to strike a balance between tradition and innovation. The best selling new models are those that are closest to familiar shapes, but at the same time are endowed with new qualities.
4. Squircle is a term that means a mathematical shape – a hybrid of a circle and a square. This form is very popular in car design. This approach is most loved by German designers.
An example of using the Squircle principle
5. Thick-to-Thin (from thick to thin). This rule is based on smooth transitions from one point to another. This includes thinning lines, and transitions from dark colors to lighter ones.
6. Straight body lines are the basis for the future appearance of cars. Design depends on them by 65%. When creating it, the main task is to find a balance between the rough and the graceful. The designer makes every effort to do this without compromising the appearance of the car.
7. Smooth body lines. These lines create the style of each brand’s lineup. Often car companies use flowing body elements in all of their models, which makes it possible to recognize the silhouette of the brand even in low light.
8. Visual insanity. This technique helps car companies get more attention. Associated with it brands Acura and Lexus. New models of these brands often look aggressive and shocking. Professionals debate the effectiveness of these approaches. They say that such a design is quickly outdated, and, accordingly, it needs a lot of injections to update it frequently.
9. Coca-Cola bottle style. The shape of the glass cola bottle has greatly influenced the design of cars. When viewed in profile, the lines resemble a bottle. In the center of the car, body elements (doors and fenders) are made narrower than the front and rear. This technique was first tried in 1963, when Studebaker presented the Studebaker Avanti. They were followed by the Chevrolet Corvette, Pontiac Tempest and Ford Torino. Echoes of this style can still be seen in the models Dodge Charger and Dodge Avenger, Dodge Challenger and Chevrolet Camaro.
10. Gigantomania (Land Yacht). This style originated in America in the 70s and is characterized by gigantic bodywork. These vehicles consume a lot of fuel due to their heavy weight and aerodynamic drag. The fashion for big cars still exists and develops in parallel with the fashion for tiny economical smarts.
Lincoln is the car most associated with the Land Yacht principle
Automotive design: controversial points
There are design solutions, the purpose of which is not fully understood, and the benefits are illusory. Usually this concerns the interior design of the car and the technical filling of the car.
1. Projection onto the road surface of a car brand when the door is opened and LED lights on the doorstep of cars. This decision is more of a boast than a really needed feature.
2. Control lamp on the eco-mode dashboard. The eco-mode panel helps the driver save fuel. The lamp comes on when the economy mode is activated and starts flashing if the driver changes his driving style abruptly. When you quickly press the brake or gas, the light starts blinking, thus recommending the driver to change the driving style. But most motorists say such a signal is rather annoying and distracting. In addition, it works after the fact, and a priori cannot help.
Chris Labrooy – Tales Of Auto Elasticity
3. An abundance of electronic gadgets and unnecessary functions. With the development of smartphones and social networks, more and more touch screens and additional functions are being placed inside cars. At the same time, they still do not work very well, and many simply distract from the main task – driving. They also contribute to the creation of road accidents. These features include:
- night vision technology (with projection on the screen);
- integration with social media;
- additional navigation and infotainment systems.
Night vision goggles are a very important feature, but they are not working well yet. In most vehicles, night vision technology projects an image onto a screen below the windshield. Looking at him is uncomfortable and dangerous, as well as being distracted by social media while driving. Buying a navigation system does not justify itself, since any smartphone has a navigator, and it works just as well.
Help prevent mistakes KLONA – the leader of the Ukrainian industrial design market. Contact us to design a machine for your project. Forward to new achievements!